This project (2018-1-ES01-KA203-050606) has been funded with support from the European Commission.
This web site reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.

This project has been funded with support from the European Commission.
This web site reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.

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Educational Material

Unit 11 - Contemporary Medicine: The Healthcare System through Socio-Political Lenses


1.2 Learning Objectives
The learning objectives of this unit focus on the description of what the learner must be able to do upon completion of this educational activity. The learning objectives outline the knowledge, skills and/or attitude the learners gain from this educational activity and also specify the measurable way in which performance and change could be measured. As much of the learning objectives of medical courses available on internet are based on Benjamin Bloom’s taxonomy (1956) the authors of the unit find it very helpful in writing this unit’s specific learning objectives for the cognitive (knowing), psychomotor (doing: skill), and affective (attitude) domains, to rely on such a model. Much of the modern medical school curricula mentioned focus mainly on the cognitive domain, which Bloom categorized into 6 levels, starting from simple recall or recognition of facts (knowledge) level, through increasingly more complex and abstract mental levels, to the highest order (evaluation).

To make the learning objectives more effective the following 5 elements: who, will do, how much or how well, of what, by when are included. The mnemonic SMART—Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Relevant, and Time-bound—are used to describe the elements of each learning objective. Here are some examples of action verbs that represent each of the six cognitive levels, from lowest to highest, which we considered using:
  • Knowledge: define, list, name, order, recognize, recall, label
  • Comprehension: classify, describe, discuss, explain, identify, locate, report, review
  • Application: apply, choose, demonstrate, illustrate, practice, solve, use
  • Analysis: analyse, appraise, calculate, compare/contrast, differentiate, diagram
  • Synthesis: arrange, assemble, construct, design, formulate, prepare, write
  • Evaluation: assess, argue, judge, predict, rate, evaluate, score, choose

One example of a possible generic SMART objective for this unit is: “Upon completion of this unit, participants should be able to comment about the way the Romanian medical system has developed and changed from the pre-communist period through communism to the transition period after 1989”.

Learning sub-objectives

To do this participants have to be able to:
a) Recognize and list at least 5 self-chosen difficulties and challenges identified in the case study, the reading and the filmed testimonial;
b) Describe and report about solutions to these difficulties based on both the resources given and on personal medical practice or personal research;
c) Analyse their work context and choose one main challenge and propose a solution to it;
d) Appraise the current situation of the Romanian health system as reflected in their own medical institution and formulate a short critical diagram of the main difficulties identified;
e) Predict the likely solutions for the next 5 years in relation to the issues mentioned at point d).

As detailed in specific literature (Kirkpatrick, 1998; Barr et al., 2000 for the medical field) other generic learning objectives of this unit aim are: a) Encourage the learners’ participation and motivation for learning; b) Contribute to changing the participants’ attitudes or perceptions of biases operating in the Romanian healthcare system (see the learning object found in the YouTube link
c) Contribute to the change of the learners’ behaviour so as to help them transfer willingly what they have learned to the (medical) workplace; stimulate the participants’ proactive attitude for practical solutions for needs illustrated in the reading/case scenario/YouTube link or identified by the participants in the real life in a medical institution;
d) Differentiate among new concepts according to which the standards of quality of a health system are structures including procedures and principles;
e) Exercise and practise social skills, cognitive thinking and problem-solving skills as important skills for a medical doctor via the reading/case scenario/YouTube testimonial;
f) Stimulate a positive attitude to change of the organizational practice of healthcare institutions and pinpoint to which mistakes could be avoided (particularly those specific to communism and those of the transition period after the fall of communism in 1989);
g) Identify positive role models, predecessors’ good medical practice to finally benefit patients and their well being (mobility abroad, continuing professional development, etc.) and identify the pitfalls of unlawful practices (bribery, excessive drug prescriptions, etc.

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