Unit 7 - Anatomy Book and Instruments for the Construction of Anatomy
UNIVERSITÀ LA SAPIENZA DI ROMA (IT)
The general aim of learning is the knowledge of the historical period between the end of the Middle Ages and the Modern Age, of the cultural drives that affirmed with Humanism, the reconstruction of the evolutionary path of anatomy in the Renaissance through the reading of the works inherited from the fathers of Science and Art. More specifically, the aim of the course is to acquire historical data through the analysis of the images proposed in the anatomical drawings of the authors. Vesalius' books, Leonardo da Vinci's drawings and illustrations represent the courageous attempt to go beyond the traditional teaching model centred on the transmission of abstract scientific contents, on doctrinal knowledge, proposing new ways of investigation and methodologies for knowledge, such as direct observation of the human body, the study conducted on the corpse, the description of its parts, vivisection, reworking through drawings, accurate descriptions. A reversal of the order of priorities is proposed between theoretical learining and experience, between reading and observation. Anatomical text is generated by practice. Dissection embodies a decisive role in the production of anatomical knowledge. The practice of dissecting the human body thus assumes a didactic function.
The "object-based learning" approach constitutes an alternative model of educational provision through the representation of historical scenarios and the integration of data within specific contents that appear to be highly effective for learning by students. The feedback of training experiences projected in the experience is definitely positive. The analysis of the anatomical illustrations of painters and sculptors of the 15th century and the observation of Leonardo's drawings allow a different understanding of the historical data and the scientific path, the achievements of medical science and the evolution of anatomical studies. The interweaving of Arts and Science also favours a better integration between the humanistic and the medical components. Through figurative art, Leonardo succeeds in representing the human body in its articulations and functions, showing its details. Art is an opportunity and means of transmission of knowledge. Educational tool for the dissemination of scientific data.
The model of learning medical science introduced by Renaissance anatomists is an important turning point in the history of medicine, proposing an innovative and effective learning methodology, with direct impact, which aims to establish a relationship between the learner and the object of study.
The project intends to develop a teaching platform that makes use of museum objects and uses audiovisual tools and collections of medical art. The approach to scientific knowledge and to the study of the human body in Leonardo's experience represents, in this sense, an emblematic example of visualization, experimentation, analysis, and data acquisition according to a training modality based on the approach to the object of study. The impact with museum collections is pedagogical. Promoting the study of the history of medicine through the authenticity of objects and their value as primary sources, developing a scientific reading through the impulse of the interpretation of the object and the implementation of knowledge by students is the aim of our work.