Cranial trepanations were made to address complex lesions. The evidences of operations show that the surgeons only removed the damaged parts of the skull without damaging the cerebral membrane
It spans from the initial periods, around 700 B.C., to. 200. A.C
Region: North Coast
An opening in the skull that leaves a window to the brain and is the oldest form of surgery documented. In the Peruvian case, it was found in the Paracas culture.
There is evidence that in pre-Columbian medicine a high percentage of patients with trepanned skulls recovered, possibly due to the use of medicinal plants to prevent infections and inflammation. Also medicinal analgesics to reduce pain during the surgery. Remains of these plants have been found next to bone remains.