The World Neurosurgery magazine published that between 75% and 83% of the subjects subjected to cranial trepanations in Peru survived, a very high rate compared to the rest of the trepanations in other parts of the world. Now Tumi it is a symbol in the logo of the Peruvian College of Physicians.
Chronology of John Rowe:
Early Intermediate Period (200 BC - 600 AC)
Region: North Coast
Primary Material: Metal
Material Type: Copper
Ceremonial object - Knife / Tumi
It is believed that there was a boom in the practice of trepanations with the Tumi- although the reasons are unknown - during the Eneolithic period, between 2400 and 1700 BC.